they\'re robots? those beasts!
Joseph Ayers squatted on a laptop in a cool coal slag shed that was barely large enough to accommodate a car --
On the mower, look at a four-way
Shell black lobster through a rectangular acrylic window. Dr.
Ayers\'s cottage is close to a glass fiber brine tank that looks like the upper side.
He was in the pool on the ground, through the window, and observed seven
A pound lobster climbed over the sand and struggled to climb a small stone.
\"His tail tilted back, and his front legs did not really touch the ground . \"
Ayers, a biology professor at Northeastern University in Boston, sounds annoyed.
A few minutes later, doctor.
Ayers noticed that one of the three legs stretched out from the right side of the lobster belly was missing a screw.
Isn\'t this lobster for industrial use?
PhD, strength plastic, metal alloy and nickel metal hydrogen cellAyers --
Author of several lobster cooking books including Dr.
Ayers cooks rice with cognac-
It seems frustrating to throw the robot lobster into a boiling pan and serve dinner. Dr.
Ayers was at the center of marine science at his university on the Nahat peninsula.
He tried to get his robot lobster ready for a demonstration at the end of September to fund the military unit he worked for-the Naval Research Office.
By then, he wanted to use the two claws of the lobster as a bump sensor.
\"When it comes into the Rock,\" he explains, \"depending on the size of the rock, it can decide whether to cross the rock or bypass it. \"Dr.
Ayers is one of the few robot researchers who view animals as muse.
Their field is often called Bionic, and researchers who are developing robotic lobsters, flies, dogs, fish, snakes, geckos and cockroaches believe, biology-inspired machines will be able to run where today\'s generation of robots cannot go.
\"Animals have adapted to any niche where we want to operate robots . \"Ayers said.
For example, his RoboLobster was designed to look for mines floating in shallow water or buried under the beach, where live lobsters have no difficulty maintaining a solid foundation.
Howie Choset, another researcher at Carnegie Mellon University, has been testing curved segmented robots based on snakes and elephant noses, this could be the perfect machine to find survivors in the ruins of buildings destroyed by explosions or natural disasters.
But replication biology is not an easy task, and some people think that although
Sony\'s toy dog Aibao\'s propaganda introduction, in 1999, the useful bionic robot may still be many years away.
\"What surprised me is how hard it is to make progress,\" said Shankar Sastry, a professor at the University of California who has been helping to design robotic flies, fish and wallsclimbing gecko.
Another challenge is the sporadic nature of project financing, mainly from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation, NASA and Darpa, a senior defense research program.
\"I hate to complain, but it\'s hard to get the money right now,\" said Dr.
Choset is the designer of a snake robot that can slide on stairs or on a drain.
The military is interested in animals.
At least since GE made gasoline in 1968, it\'s like a robot --
A walking machine that powers an army like an elephant.
However, the machine needs manual operation, which is difficult to control.
At the time, according to Paul Munch, an army tank research scientist, some thought the work was frivolous --
Automotive and Weapons Command in Warren, Michigan.
An organization called Tacom.
\"A letter was written to a senator asking why we did it when we were in Vietnam . \"Muench said.
\"The program was crushed.
\"But now, Tacom has allocated $1 million to do more research on walking robots.
One is the robot \"Mule\", which can be used as a diesel generator to power mobile devices.
It was designed by a pair of former Disney employees who were in charge of building a 9-
Sometimes the lucky foot dinosaur robot roaming the Disney theme park.
Another TACOM mule will carry equipment for the soldiers to enable them to travel long distances.
A company in Cincinnati called Yobotics is developing a robotic dog for Tacom that could one day become the best friend of soldiers.
\"Imagine you have a sniper hiding behind the wall . \"Muench said.
\"You want to send something out, something sacrificed to make a fire, or look around in a corner you don\'t want to see.
\"Of course,\" there is no doubt that they will be very expensive as a sacrifice Lamb. Muench said.
\"You don\'t want it destroyed.
The only reason is if they can save their lives.
\"Researchers working on the robot zoo are not just thinking about military use, although they are trying to paint dramatic wartime and local defense scenes to attract money.
One day, machine whales can swim with real whales and send back data and images to marine biologists studying migration patterns or students in classrooms.
\"You can be in the ocean, not reading the ocean,\" says Robert Full, a professor of comprehensive biology at the University of California . \".
Others say that advances in leg-like robots may eventually bring more realistic and practical prosthetic limbs to amputees.
At Carnegie Mellon.
Choset believes that his reptile robot can one day be used to check the underground fuel tank, or to conduct medical tests and surgery in the human body in a smaller range.
\"One of our goals is to be able to perform surgery in a minimally invasive way,\" Dr. Choset said.
This summer, he conducted a preliminary test to insert a snake robot smaller than inches in diameter into the belly of a live pig.
But today, robots used by the military, consumers, or businesses rarely resemble animals.
One reason is that wheels and tank pedals, not legs, are a more efficient way of moving, says Levofloxacin Hydrochloride Eye Drops Greiner, president of iRobot, Massachusetts
Earlier, the company worked with NASA to build robots like insects, and the space agency is considering planetary exploration.
But these mechanical bugs are still on Earth, and the robots NASA sends to Mars are like
\"Where rubber meets the road, the wheels are very effective . \"Greiner said.
Her company\'s robotic vacuum cleaner rolls on a small set of wheels and doesn\'t look like an oversized puck, much more like a dolphin.
\"We are introducing the most effective solutions to the market today,\" she said . \".
\"In the future, we will not see robots with legs, which is not to say.
\"One important step forward, the researchers say, will be artificial muscles, a synthetic substance that can contract and relax when energized, just like organic muscles.
\"The muscles are spectacular springs, shock absorbers, pillars, brakes, and motors that are all rolled into a thin, small tissue,\" said the doctor. Full said.
RoboLobster has delicate, strong artificial muscles made of nickel that move the legs
Titanium alloy, known as nitinol, shrinks when powered on.
Earlier this year, a start
The up company, called artificial muscles, was separated from Silicon Valley research group SRI International to commercialize a new type of muscle-like polymer.
But the bionic researchers did not wait for the final artificial muscle.
They are looking for any insight they can find on how animals do things that robots in the current category cannot do. Dr.
Full has been studying the tiny hairs at the end of the gecko\'s toe that allow the lizard to catch the smooth surface, scale the walls and hang on the ceiling.
\"We brushed their toes and the hair fell off and we put them under an electron microscope,\" he said . \".
\"We don\'t understand how they are.
Clean, why don\'t they pad and stick together.
We will figure it out.
\"Mark Rebert, president of Boston Dynamics, a private company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Watch videos of goats running on steep rocky terrain.
\"This is very encouraging,\" he said . \"
\"What happened on the goat\'s feet was very interesting ---
How it gets traction on a very steep surface. \"Dr.
Raibert\'s company is working on several bionic projects, and he relies on Harvard biologists who dissect goat feet to better understand how robots achieve similar gestures.
Boston power has been working on a climbing robot that can use a doctor.
The geckolike adhesive substance of Full is also a kind of six-
A robot with elastic legs, similar to the leg of a cockroach.
But under Darpa\'s contract, the company\'s main current project is a running four-legged animal called BigDog.
Hanging on steel I-
In the office of the company, BigDog is slightly larger than the big Dane, with a sparkling metal skeleton and rubber club-like foot that looks like it was drawn by Dr. Seuss.
It has no head yet-
NASA\'s Jet Propulsion Lab is still working on visual systems. -
But there will be a small radiator in the chest to cool the oil through the BigDog hydraulic system.
\"We will not blindly imitate what evolution has created . \"Raibert said.
\"My dream is to make any part of the robot look like a machine and when it moves you say, \'Wow, it\'s an animal.
\"Robolobster is already in compliance with the bill, at least in part.
When it went through the doctor\'s sand
Ayers\'s tank, which leans forward like a real shellfish.
However, the downside is that it is able to get rid of the blockage. Dr.
Ayers hopes to program this behavior as soon as possible.
Despite the difficulties with RoboLobster\'s recent outing, this is the first trial run using the newly designed battery pack, Dr.
Ayers was very enthusiastic. He guided robost around the tank with computer commands.
\"We should put an odometer on this thing,\" he said . \".
\"We really recorded a few miles here.
\"Robot ArkSNAKE--snakerobot. com --
Snake Robot at Carnegie Mellon UniversityCOCKROACH --rhex. net --RHex, a six-
Leg robot inspired by cockroaches. GECKO --berkeley.
Edu/news/media/release/2002/09/rfull/bot. html --Mecho-
Gecko developed by iRobot and UC Berkeley. LOBSTER --www. Neural Technologyneu. edu --
Robot lobster of Northeastern University (
Click on any link under the online animation of the bionic system). FLY --berkeley.
Edu/news/media/release/99 legacy/6-15-1999pix. html --
Robot flight program at the University of California, Berkeley. FISH --web. mit.
Edu/towtank/www/media. htmlpike --M. I. T.
Robot Fish, robot fish and Robot Tuna.